ืขืœ ื–ื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ื•ืื”ื‘ื” ื‘ื’ื™ืœ ื”ื”ืชื‘ื’ืจื•ืช, ืžื™ื“ืข ื•ื”ืžืœืฆื•ืช ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื•ืช ืœื›ื, ื”ื”ื•ืจื™ื

ื‘ืžืืžืจ ื–ื” ืื‘ืงืฉ ืœืกืงื•ืจ ืืช ื ื•ืฉื ื”ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ื•ื”ื™ื—ืกื™ื ื”ืื™ื ื˜ื™ืžื™ื™ื ืขื ื‘ื ื™ ื”ืžื™ืŸ ื”ืฉื ื™ ื‘ื’ื™ืœ ื”ื”ืชื‘ื’ืจื•ืช. ืืขืกื•ืง ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื”ื™ื‘ื˜ื™ื ื”ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ื™ื, ื”ื”ืชื ื”ื’ื•ืชื™ื™ื ื•ื”ืจื’ืฉื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจ. ื‘ื—ืœืงื• ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืืชืŸ ืžื™ื“ืข ื•ื‘ื—ืœืงื• ื”ืฉื ื™ ื”ืžืœืฆื•ืช ืœื”ื•ืจื™ื.

ืœื ืื›ื ืก ื›ืืŸ ืœืชื™ืื•ืจื™ื ืคื™ื–ื™ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื™ื ืžืคื•ืจื˜ื™ื ื”ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ื ืขืœ ื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจื™ื ื•ื‘ื›ืœ ื–ืืช, ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉื ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื ืจื‘ื™ื (ืฉื™ืขืจ, ื’ื•ื‘ื”, ืงื•ืœ, ืคืฆืขื•ื ื™ื, ื—ื–ื” ื•ืขื•ื“..) ื•ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื ืžืฉืžืขื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจ ืขืฆืžื•- ื”ื“ื™ืžื•ื™ ื”ืขืฆืžื™ ืฉืœื•, ืžืฆื‘ื• ื”ืจื’ืฉื™, ื”ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ ื•ื›ื•'.ย ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ, ื”ืชืคืชื—ื•ืช ื”ืžื™ื ื™ืช ื‘ื’ื™ืœ ื–ื” ื”ื™ื ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ืขื ื™ื™ืŸ ืคื–ื™ื•ืœื•ื’ื™- ื”ื•ืจืžื•ื ืœื™ ื•ื’ื ื›ืืŸ, ื™ืฉื ื• ืชื”ืœื™ืš ืฉืฉื•ื” ืœืงืจื•ื ืขืœื™ื• ื•ืœื”ื‘ื™ื ื•.

ื—ืœืง ืจืืฉื•ืŸ: ืžื™ื“ืข

ืจืืฉื™ืช, ืœืžื” ืžื™ื“ืข ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื›ืœ ื›ืš ื‘ื”ืงืฉืจ ื–ื”?

– ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืœืคืขืžื™ื ืื ื• ื›ื”ื•ืจื™ื ื ื‘ื”ืœื™ื. ื ืจืื” ืœื ื• ืฉื”ืžืฆื‘ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื ื• ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจ/ืช ืฉืœื ื• ื”ื•ื ืœื ื ื•ืจืžืœื™ ื•ื”ื•ื ืื›ืŸ ืฉื•ื ื” ืžืžื” ืฉื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืจื’ื™ืœื™ื ืื‘ืœ ื–ื”ื• ื”ืžืฆื‘ ื”ื ื•ืจืžืœื™ ืœื’ื™ืœ ื–ื” ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ื ืฉืืจ ื–ื”ื”, ืกื˜ื˜ื™, ื”ื™ื” ื–ื” ืžืฆื‘ ืฉืฉื•ื” ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืื•ืชื•. ืื ื ื‘ื”ืœ ืžื“ื™, ืœื ื ืคืชื— ืœืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ื”ื–ื” ื•ืื–, ืชืœื•ื™ ืžืชื‘ื’ืจ-ื”ื•ืจื”- ืžืขืจื›ืช ื™ื—ืกื™ื..- ืื• ืฉืœื ื ืืคืฉืจ ืื•ืชื• ื‘ืžืœื•ืื• ืื• ืฉื ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื”ืชื ื’ื“ื•ืช ืžื™ื•ืชืจืช ื•ืžืื‘ืงื™ ืกืจืง ื‘ืชื•ืš ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ื™ื—ืกื™ื. ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ, ื›ื“ืื™ ืฉื ื“ืข ืžื” ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœืžืชื‘ื’ืจ ืฉืœื ื• ื›ืจื’ืข? ืžื” ืžืžืœื ืืช ืขื•ืœืžื•?

ืื–, ื›ื“ืื™ ืœื“ืขืช ืฉ..

ื”ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ื”ืขื™ืงืจื™ ื•ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืชืงื•ืคื” ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ื• ื’ื™ื‘ื•ืฉ ื”ื–ื”ื•ืช ื”ืขืฆืžื™ืช. ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ื–ื” ื•ืžืžื ื• ื ื’ื–ืจื™ื ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ื™ื ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™ื™ื ื ื•ืกืคื™ื ื›ื’ื•ืŸ: ื‘ื™ืกื•ืก ืขืžื“ื” ืขืฆืžืื™ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื•ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื, ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ืžืขืžื“ื• ื‘ืžืฉืคื—ื” (ืœื ืคืขื ืœื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื™ื•ื•ื™ื•ื ื™ ื™ื•ืชืจ) ื•ื—ื™ื–ื•ืง ื”ืฆื•ืจืš ื‘ื”ืฉืชื™ื™ื›ื•ืช ืœืงื‘ื•ืฆืช ื”ืฉื•ื•ื™ื. ืžืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ื–ื” ื ื’ื–ืจ ืื—ืจ ื›ืš (ื‘ืฉืœื‘ ืžืื•ื—ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ื’ื™ืœ ื”ื”ืชื‘ื’ืจื•ืช) ื”ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœืคืขื™ืœื•ื™ื•ืช ืžืฉื•ืชืคื•ืช ื•ืœื™ื—ืกื™ื ืื™ื ื˜ื™ืžื™ื™ื ืขื ื‘ื ื™ ื”ืžื™ืŸ ื”ืฉื ื™.

ื‘ืฉืœื‘ ื–ื”, ืฉืœื‘ ืฉืœ ื”ืชืื”ื‘ื•ื™ื•ืช, ืืฉืจ ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ื‘ื’ื™ืœ ื–ื” ื”ืŸ ืขื•ืฆืžืชื™ื•ืชย ื•ื—ื•ืœืคื•ืช, ื™ืขื“ื™ืคื• ื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจื™ื ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืขื ื”ื—ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ื”ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ืฉืœื”ื ื‘ืงื‘ื•ืฆืช ื”ืฉื•ื•ื™ื ื•ืœื ืขื ื”ื•ืจื™ื”ื. ื’ื ื‘ืฉืœ ื”ืฆื•ืจืš ืฉืœื”ื ื‘ื”ื’ื“ืจื” ืขืฆืžื™ืช- ื•ื”ื”ื•ืจื”, ืขื ืขืฆื•ืชื™ื• ื•ื ืกื™ื•ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืฉืคื™ืข ืขืœ ื”ื’ื“ืจื” ืฉื›ื–ื•.. ื•ื’ื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืงื‘ื•ืฆืช ื”ืฉื•ื•ื™ื ืขื•ื‘ืจืช ืืช ืžื” ืฉืขื•ื‘ืจ ื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจ ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ื ื” ืื•ืชื• ื™ื•ืชืจ, ืœืคื—ื•ืช ืžื–ื•ื•ื™ืช ื”ืจืื™ื™ื” ืฉืœื•.

ื‘ืฉืœ ื›ืš, ืœื ืคืขื ืžืจื’ื™ืฉื™ื ื”ื”ื•ืจื™ื ื›ืื™ืœื• ื ื“ื—ืง ืžืงื•ืžื ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™ ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื”ื™ืœื“ (ื”ืงืœื”: ืื ื™ื‘ื™ื ื• ืฉื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™ ื”ื™ื ื• ื‘ื“ื™ื•ืง ื–ื” ื‘ื• ื”ื ื ื“ื—ืงื™ื. ื”ื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืฉื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื•ื›ืœ ืœื‘ื—ื•ืจ ืœื ืœืฉืชืฃ ืื•ืชื, ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืชืขืœื ืžืขืฆื•ืชื™ื”ื, ื™ืžืจื•ื“ ื‘ื”ื ื•ื›ื•').

ื”ื”ืชืื”ื‘ื•ืช ื’ื ื”ื™ื ื—ืœืง ืžื”ืฆื•ืจืš ื‘ื”ืชื ืกื•ืช, ื‘ืขืฆืžืื•ืช, ื‘ื—ื™ืงื•ื™ ืขื•ืœื ื”ืžื‘ื•ื’ืจื™ื ื•ื”ื™ื ื’ื ื ื•ื‘ืขืช ืžื‘ื™ืกื•ืก ื”ืงืฉืจื™ื ืขื ืงื‘ื•ืฆืช ื”ืฉื•ื•ื™ื ื•ืžื—ื™ืคื•ืฉ ื•ื‘ื™ืกื•ืก ื”ื–ื”ื•ืช ื”ืื™ืฉื™ืช. ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ืฉืื™ื ื ื” ื—ืœืง ื”ื›ืจื—ื™ ื‘ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื–ื” ื•ืืฆืœ ืžืชื‘ื’ืจื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ืชื’ื™ืข ื”ืจื‘ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืื•ื—ืจ.

ื”ื‘ืœื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืžืืคื™ื™ืŸ ืžืื•ื“ ืืช ื”ืชืงื•ืคื” ื”ื–ื• (ื•ื ื•ื‘ืข ืžืกื™ื‘ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช ื›ื’ื•ืŸ: ื”ืชื‘ื’ืจื•ืช ืžื™ื ื™ืช ืžื•ืงื“ืžืช ื”ืžื‘ื™ืื” ืœืคืขืจื™ื ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™ื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื’ื™ืœ ื”ื›ืจื•ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ ืœื’ื™ืœ ื”ื‘ืฉืœื•ืช ื”ืžื™ื ื™ืช, ืฉื™ื ื™ื™ื ืคื™ื–ื™ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื™ื ื”ื•ืจืžื•ื ืœื™ื™ื ืžื”ื™ืจื™ื- ื›ืคื™ ืฉื›ืชื‘ืชื™ ืœืขื™ืœ, ืื™ื“ืืœ ื”ื™ื•ืคื™ ื”ื ืฉื™ ืื•ืชื• ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืจืื•ืช ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ื”ื™ื ื• ื ืขืจื•ืช ืฆืขื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืฆื’ื•ืช ื›ื ืฉื™ื ืœื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืžื•ืคื™ืขื•ืช ืœื ืคืขื ื‘ืชื ื•ื—ื•ืช ื ืฉื™ื•ืช ืœื’ืžืจื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื”ืŸ ื•ืœื• ื“ื‘ืจ ืขื ื”ื’ื™ืœ ื”ื›ืจื•ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ ืื•ืชื• ื”ืŸ ืžื™ื™ืฆื’ื•ืช, ื”ื—ืฉื™ืคื” ืœืžื™ื“ืข ื“ืจืš ื”ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜ ื•ืขื•ื“) ืžืชื‘ื˜ื ื’ื ื‘ืงืฉืจื™ื ื”ื–ื•ื’ื™ื™ื. ืคืขืžื™ื ืจื‘ื•ืช ืœื ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืœืžืชื‘ื’ืจ/ืช ืื ื”ื•ื ืื•ื”ื‘/ ืžืื•ื”ื‘/ ืžื—ื‘ื‘/ ืื• ืฉืคืฉื•ื˜ ื ืขื™ื ืœื• ืขื ื‘ืŸ ื”ื–ื•ื’. ืœืขื™ืชื™ื ืืคื™ืœื• ื™ืชื‘ืœื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืจืฆื•ืŸ ืœื–ื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืžืชื•ืš ืจืฆื•ืŸ ืื™ืฉื™ ื•ืืžื™ืชื™ ืœื”ืชื ืกื•ืช ื‘ื›ืš ืื• ืžืชื•ืš ืงื•ื ืคื•ืจืžื™ื•ืช- ืจืฆื•ืŸ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื›ืžื• ื”ืจื•ื‘, ืื• ื›ืžื• ื”'ืงื•ืœื™ื' ืฉื‘ื—ื‘ื•ืจื”.

ืื‘ื—ื™ืŸ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืชืื”ื‘ื•ืช ื’ืจื™ื“ื ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ื™ื—ืกื™ื ืฉืœ ืžืžืฉ. ืจื‘ื™ื ื‘ื ื™ ื”ื ื•ืขืจ ืฉ'ืจืง ื™ืชืื”ื‘ื•'.. ื‘ืœื™ ืฉืžื•ืฉื ื”ื”ืชืื”ื‘ื•ืช ืืคื™ืœื• ื™ื“ืข ืขืœ ื–ื”. ืžืขื™ืŸ ืคื ื˜ื–ื™ื™ืช ื ืขื•ืจื™ื ืขืœ ืžื™ืฉื”ื• ืื—ืจ ืžื‘ืœื™ ืœื ืกื•ืช ย ืื• ืœื”ืชื›ื•ื•ืŸ ืœื”ื’ืฉื™ืžื”. ืคืขืžื™ื ืจื‘ื•ืช ืชื”ื™ื” ื–ื• ืžืขื™ืŸ ื”ืชื ืกื•ืช ืžืงื“ื™ืžื” ื’ื ืื ื—ื“ ืฆื“ื“ื™ืช, ื‘ืจื’ืฉื•ืช ื›ืืœื•. ื‘ื“ืžื™ื•ืŸ, ื™ืชื›ืŸ ื›ื™ ื™ืชืงื™ื™ืžื• ื’ื ื™ื—ืกื™ื.. ืžื” ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ืื•ืžืจืช ืœื•, ืœืืŸ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื”ื•ืœื›ื™ื ื•ืืฃ ืžื—ืฉื‘ื•ืช ืขืœ ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ืจืžื•ืช ื”ืฉื•ื ื•ืช ืฉืœื•.

ื’ื ื›ืืฉืจ ืžืชืงื™ื™ื ืงืฉืจ ืžืžืฉื™ ื–ื•ื’ื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื ื™ ืžืชื‘ื’ืจื™ื ื™ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื• ืจืžื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช. ื”ืจืžื•ืช ื™ื™ืงื‘ืขื• ืœืคื™ ืจืžืช ื”ืงืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจื™ื, ืœืคื™ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืžืžื ื• ื‘ืื• (ืืคืฉืจ ืœื˜ืขื•ืช ื•ืœื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื›ืืŸ ืฉืžื‘ื™ืช ืžืชื™ืจื ื™ ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ืžื™ื ื™ืช ื™ื’ื™ืขื• ื’ื ืžืชื‘ื’ืจื™ื ื›ืืœื” ื•ืœื ืชืžื™ื“ ื›ืš ื”ื“ื‘ืจ. ื“ื•ื•ืงื ื”ืฆื•ืจืš ืœืžืจื•ื“ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื ืคืขื ืœื”ื‘ื™ื ืžืชื‘ื’ืจื™ื ืžื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืจื ื™ ืœื”ืชื ื”ื’ื•ืช ืžืชื™ืจื ื™ืช ื•ืœื”ื™ืคืš), ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ื‘ื” ื”ื ื ืžืฆืื™ื ื•ืžื” ย ืฉืžืงื•ื‘ืœ ื‘ื”, ืžืขืžื“ื• ื”ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจ, ื”ื“ื™ืžื•ื™ ื”ืขืฆืžื™ ืฉืœื• (ื•ื’ื ื›ืืŸ ืœืคืขืžื™ื ื›ืš ื•ืœืคืขืžื™ื ื›ืš: ื“ื™ืžื•ื™ ืขืฆืžื™ ื ืžื•ืš ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื‘ื™ื ื“ื•ื•ืงื ืœืจืฆื•ืŸ ืœื”ืชืงื“ื ื‘ื™ื—ืกื™ื ืžื”ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื•ืœืขื™ืชื™ื ื‘ื“ื™ื•ืง ื”ื”ื™ืคืš..) ื•ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ื’ื ื”ื”ืชืคืชื—ื•ืช ื”ืคื™ื–ื™ืช ื•ื”ืจื’ืฉื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจ ืขืฆืžื•. ื›ืœ ื”ื’ื•ืจืžื™ื ื”ืœืœื• ื•ืขื•ื“, ื‘ื™ื—ื“ ืื• ืœื—ื•ื“, ืžืฉืคื™ืขื™ื ืขืœ ืžื™ื“ืช ื”ืคืชื™ื—ื•ืช ื•ื”ืื™ื ื˜ื™ืžื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจืžื” ื”ืจื’ืฉื™ืช ื›ืžื• ื’ื ื‘ืจืžื” ื”ืคื™ื–ื™ืช- ื”ืžื™ื ื™ืช.

ื™ืชื›ืŸ ื›ื™ ื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจ/ืช ืฉืœื›ื ื›ื‘ืจ ื™ื•ืฆืื™ื ื–ืžืŸ ืžื” ืขื ื‘ืŸ ื–ื•ื’ ืงื‘ื•ืข ื•ืžืขื•ื ื™ื™ื ื™ื ืœื”ื–ืžื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื•/ื” ืœื™ืฉื•ืŸ ืืฆืœื•/ื” ืื• ืœื”ื™ืคืš. ื–ื”ื• ืฉืœื‘ ืืคืฉืจื™ ื‘ื’ื™ืœ ื–ื”. ื•ื”ื”ืชืคืชื—ื•ืช ื”ืžื™ื ื™ืช ื”ื™ื ื—ืœืง ืžืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื”ืชื‘ื’ืจื•ืช, ื”ืฉืืœื” ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื”ื™ื- ื”ืื ื™ืฉ ืžื•ื›ื ื•ืช ื ืคืฉื™ืช ืœืฉืœื‘ ื–ื”. ื›ื ืจืื” ืฉืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ื—ื“ ืžืฉืžืขื™ืช. ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื–ื›ื•ืจ ื’ื ืฉืื ื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจ ืฉืœื›ื ื›ื‘ืจ ื”ื’ื™ืข ืœื”ื—ืœื˜ื”- ืกื‘ื™ืจ ืœื”ื ื™ื— ืฉื™ื™ืฉื ืื•ืชื” ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงืจื”. ืžื” ืฉื ื•ืชืจ ื”ื•ื, ืื ื›ืš ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื- ื‘ืœื™ ืœื”ืคื—ื™ื“, ื‘ืœื™ ืœื”ืžืฆื™ื ืงืฉื™ื™ื ื•ื‘ืœื™ ืœื”ืงืœ ืจืืฉ, ืžืฆื“ ืฉื ื™. ื’ื ืื ืฉื™ื—ื” ื›ื–ื•ย ืžื‘ื™ืื” ืื™ืชื” ืžื‘ื•ื›ื” ื•ืงื•ืฉื™. ื™ืฉ ื›ืืŸ ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืœื”ื•ืจื™ ื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจื™ื ื•ืœืงืฉืจ ืคืชื•ื— ืฉืœื”ื ืขื ื™ืœื“ื™ื”ื.

ย ื—ืœืง ืฉื ื™: ื”ืžืœืฆื•ืช

ื”ื•ืจื™ื ื™ืงืจื™ื,

ืขื›ืฉื™ื• (ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื›ื‘ืจ ืงื•ื“ื) ืืชื ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ื ืฉื ื•ืจืžืœื™ ืœื—ืœื•ื˜ื™ืŸ ืฉื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจ ืฉืœื›ื ืœื ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ืชื™ื™ืขืฅ ืืชื›ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ/ ื—ืœืง ืžืžืจื›ื™ื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื•. ืืชื ื’ื ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ื ืฉื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉื™ื’ื‘ืฉ ืœืขืฆืžื• ื–ื”ื•ืช ืื™ืฉื™ืช- ืขืฆืžื™ืช ืฉื”ื™ื ื‘ืืžืช ืฉืœื•. ืขื•ื“ ื™ื“ื•ืข ืœื›ื ืฉื”ืชืื”ื‘ื•ืช ื•ื’ื ืžื™ื ื™ื•ืช ื™ื›ื•ืœื•ืช ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื—ืœืง ืžืขืกืงืช ื”ื—ื‘ื™ืœื” ืฉืœ ื”ื’ื™ืœ ื”ื–ื” ื•ื’ื ื”ื™ื ื”ืชื ืกื•ืช ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื” ื‘ืชื•ืš ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื”ืชื‘ื’ืจื•ืช ืื– ืงื•ื“ื ื›ืœ- ื–ื›ืจื• ื–ืืช. ื–ื” ื ื•ืจืžืœื™. ื–ื” ื‘ืจื™ื. ื–ื” ืžื‘ื•ืจืš.

ืžื” ืขื•ื“? ืœื”ืงืฉื™ื‘ ืœื”ืงืฉื™ื‘ ืœื”ืงืฉื™ื‘. ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืœื“ื‘ืจ. ืื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื ืคื’ืฉื™ื ื˜ืจื•ื ื’ื™ืœ ื”ื”ืชื‘ื’ืจื•ืช ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ืื•ืžืจืช ืœื—ื–ืง ืืช ื”ืงืฉืจื™ื ื›ืขืช. ืœื”ืžื ืข ืžื”ื‘ืขืช ื‘ื™ืงื•ืจืช ื ื•ืงื‘ืช. ืืคืฉืจ ืœื”ื‘ื™ืข ื“ืขื” ื•ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื–ื•ื”ื™ ื“ืขืชื™ ื•ื›ื•' ืื‘ืœ ืื ื—ื ื• ื ืคื’ืฉื™ื ืขื›ืฉื™ื• (ื‘ืขืจืš ื ืคื’ืฉื™ื) ื•ื”ื ื” ื”ื”ืคืชืขื” ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื”- ื’ื ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ื–ื” ืืคืฉืจื™. ื”ื•ื/ื”ื™ื (ืื ื™ ื™ื•ื“ืขืช- ื™ืฉ ื”ื‘ื“ืœ!! ื•ื‘ื›ืœ ื–ืืช..) ืจื•ืฆื™ื ืœืžืจื•ื“ ื‘ื›ื ื•ื–ืงื•ืงื™ื ืœื›ืš ื•ืœื›ืŸ, ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉื™ื”ื™ื• ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช. ื”ื ืจื•ืฆื™ื ืœื”ืชื™ื™ืขืฅ ืขื ื—ื‘ืจื™ื”ื ื•ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉืชื›ื‘ื“ื• ื–ืืช ื•ื’ื ืืช ื“ืขื•ืชื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ื”ื—ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืžื™ื™ืขืฆื™ื ื’ื ืื ืืชื ืœื ืžืžืฉ 'ืžืชื™ื' ืขืœื™ื”ื. ืคืจื˜ ืœื”ืงืฉื‘ื” ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื ืืžืจื™ื- ื”ืงืฉื™ื‘ื• ื’ื ืœืจื’ืฉื•ืชื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจื™ื ืฉืœื›ื, ืœื”ืชื ื”ื’ื•ืชื, ืœืฉืคืช ื”ื’ื•ืฃ ืฉืœื”ื ื•ื”ื’ื™ื‘ื• ืขืœ ื›ืš. ืื ื‘ื“ื™ื‘ื•ืจ ืื• ื‘ืžืขืฉื”. ื›ืš ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืื™ืชื ื•ื›ืš ื”ื ื™ื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ืจื’ื™ืฉ ืฉืืชื ืื›ืŸ ืื™ืชื.

ื”ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ื”ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™ ืืฆืœ ื”ื”ื•ืจื” ื”ื•ื ื‘ืžืขื‘ืจ ืžื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช/ ื”ื•ืจืื•ืช/ ืงื‘ื™ืขื•ืช ืœื”ื“ืจื›ื”, ื”ื ื—ื™ื”, ื”ื ืขื” ืœืคืขื•ืœื”ย ื•ืžืฉื•ื‘. ื‘ืขืฆื ื™ืฉ ื›ืืŸ ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื“ืจื’ืชื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ื”ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ืžื”ื”ื•ืจื” ืœืžืชื‘ื’ืจ ืชื•ืš ื”ืฉืืจื•ืช ืžืชืžื“ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื”ื•ืจื” ื‘ืจืงืข.

ื”ืžืœืฆื•ืช ืงื•ื ืงืจื˜ื™ื•ืช ืœื”ื•ืจื™ื:

(1) ืื‘ื—ื ื” ื‘ืจื•ืจื” ื‘ื™ื ื›ื ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืฆืžื›ื ืงื•ื“ื ื›ืœ: ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžื” ืฉืœื ืคืชื•ื— ืœื“ื™ื•ืŸ- ืžื” ืฉืžื”ื•ื•ื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืขื‘ื•ืจื›ื (ื•ื›ื“ืื™ ืฉืœื ื™ื”ื™ื• ื›ืืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื) ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืžืœืฆื•ืช ืฉืœื›ื. ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื•ืช ื›ื›ืœ ืฉื™ื”ื™ื•- ื›ืืŸ ื™ื•ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจ, ื‘ืกื•ืคื• ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจ, ืœื‘ื—ื•ืจ ื‘ืขืฆืžื•. ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืœื“ื•ื’ืžื”: ืื ืฉื•ืชื™ื ืœื ื ื•ื”ื’ื™ื. ื”ืžืœืฆื” ืœื“ื•ื’ืžื”- ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ื”ื–ืืช ืœื ืžื•ืฆืืช ื—ืŸ ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื™. ืฉื•ื•ื” ืืคื™ืœื• ืœืฉื‘ืช ืขื ืขืฆืžื›ื ื•ืœื›ืชื•ื‘ ืืช ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื (ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช) ื•ืžื“ื•ืข ื”ื ืœื ืคืชื•ื—ื™ื ืœื“ื™ื•ืŸ (ืœืžืฉืœ: ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžืกื›ืŸ ืืช ื—ื™ื™ ื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจ ืื• ื—ื‘ืจื™ื•).

(2)ย ืงื‘ืœืช ื”ืขื•ื‘ื“ื” ืฉื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจ ื”ื™ื ื• ืื“ื ื‘ืขืœ ืขืจื›ื™ื, ืจืฆื•ื ื•ืช, ื˜ืขืžื™ื ื•ื“ืขื•ืช ืžืฉืœ ืขืฆืžื• ืชื‘ื™ื ืœื™ื›ื•ืœืช ืœื”ื›ื™ืœ ื•ืœืงื‘ืœย ื—ื™ืœื•ืงื™ ื“ืขื•ืช ื•ืœื™ื–ื•ื ืคืฉืจื•ืช.

(3) ื—ื™ื–ื•ืงื™ื (ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื”ืื™ืฉื™, ื”ื‘ื™ื ืื™ืฉื™, ื”ืคื™ื–ื™, ื”ืœื™ืžื•ื“ื™..)- ื ื•ืฉื ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™ ืžืื•ื“. ื“ืจืš ื—ื™ื–ื•ืงื™ื ืืœื• ืžื•ืฆื ื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจ ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ื‘ืขืฆืžื• ืœื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ ืขื ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื. ืชื›ื•ื ื” ืื• ื ื˜ื™ื™ื” ืฉื ื—ื–ืง ืชืขืœื” ืืฆืœื• ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ื–ื“ืงืง ืœืขื–ืจื” ืื• ืœื”ื ื—ื™ื”. ืืชืŸ ื“ื•ื’ืžื”: ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ื“ืข ืฉื”ื•ื ื—ื•ืฉื‘ ืœืคื ื™ ืžืขืฉื”- ืฉื”ื•ื ืฉืงื•ืœ- ื”ื•ื ื’ื ืฉืžืข ื–ืืช ื”ืžื•ืŸ ืคืขืžื™ื. ื›ืฉื™ืฉืืœ ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ืื ืœืฉืชื•ืช ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืขื ื”ื—ื‘ืจ'ื” ืื• ืœื- ืชืขืœื” ื”ืชื›ื•ื ื” ื”ื–ืืช, ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื•ื“ืข ืœื” ื’ื ืžื™ืœื•ืœื™ืช (ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื™ื ื ืืžืจืช ืœื• ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืืžืช)- ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ื“ืข ืฉืขืฉื” ื‘ื” ื›ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื•ื”ื•ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ื” ื’ื ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื›ืขืช. ื ืขืจ ืฉืžื•ื“ืข ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืœื—ื•ืœืฉื•ืชื™ื• ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื• ืืจื’ื– ื—ื•ื–ืงื•ืช ืฉื›ื–ื” ืœืคื ื•ืช ืืœื™ื• ื‘ืขืช ื”ืฆื•ืจืš.

(4) ื“ืจื›ื™ื ืฉื•ื ื•ืช ืœื”ืขื‘ืจืช ืžืกืจื™ื: ืœื ื›ืœ ื“ืจืš ืชืชืื™ื ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืฆื‘. ืœื›ืŸ, ื›ื“ืื™ ืœืขืฆื•ืจ ื•ืœื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืžื” ืžืชืื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืื•ืชื• ืจื’ืข/ ืžืฆื‘. ื“ืจืš ื”ืฉื›ืœ- ืขื•ื‘ื“ื•ืช, ื ืชื•ื ื™ื, ืชื™ืื•ืจื™ื•ืช ื•ื›ื•'. ื“ืจืš ื”ืจื’ืฉ/ ื”ืœื‘: ืกื™ืคื•ืจื™ื ืžื”ื—ื™ื™ื, ืชืžื•ื ื•ืช ื•ื›ื•'. ื‘ืฉืชื™ ื”ื“ืจื›ื™ื ืืคืฉืจ ื’ื ืœื”ืคื ื•ืช ืœืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜. ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงืจื”, ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื–ื›ื•ืจ ืฉื›ืœ ื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ื›ื–ืืช ื”ื™ื ืจืง ืคืชื— ืœื“ื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ื• ืชืชืงื™ื™ื ื”ื—ืœืคืช ื“ืขื•ืช ืžืžืงื•ื ืฉื™ื•ื•ื™ื•ื ื™ ื•ืœื ืžืžืงื•ื ืกืžื›ื•ืชื™/ ื›ื•ื—ื ื™.

(5) ืžื” ืฉืืกื•ืจ ืฉื™ื™ืขืœื ืžื—ื™ื™ ื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจ : ืชืžื™ื›ื”, ื”ืงืฉื‘ื”, ื—ื•ื, ืืžื•ืŸ, ืชืงืฉื•ืจืช. ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉื”ืžืชื‘ื’ืจ ืฉืœื›ื ื™ื“ืข ืฉืืชื ืชืžื™ื“ ืคื” ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœื•. ื’ื ืื ื™ืืžืจ ืœื›ื ืืœืฃ ืคืขืžื™ื ืฉื•ื”ื ืœื ืจื•ืฆื” ื‘ื›ืš. ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉืœื ื™ื™ืฉืืจ ืœื‘ื“. ืฉื™ื“ืข ื’ื ืฉื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงืจื”, ื’ื ืื ืชื›ืขืกื• ืœืžืฉืœ, ืืชื ืชื”ื™ื• ืคื” ืœืชืžื•ืš ื‘ื• ื•ืชื”ื™ื• ื—ื–ืงื™ื ืžืกืคื™ืง ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ ืขื ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ื‘ื™ื. ื‘ื ื•ืฉื ื”ืชืงืฉื•ืจืช- ื’ื ืื ื™ืืžืจ ืœื›ื ืฉืืชื ื—ื•ืคืจื™ื, ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉืœื ื™ืงื‘ืœ ืžื™ื“ืข ืจืง ืžื”ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜ ื•ืžื—ื‘ืจื™ื•- ื“ื‘ืจื• ืื™ืชื• ืขืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื ื›ืžื•: ืื”ื‘ื”- ืขืœ ืคื ื™ื” ื”ืฉื•ื ื•ืช, ืžื™ื ื™ื•ืช, ื–ื•ื’ื™ื•ืช, ืืœื›ื•ื”ื•ืœ.. ืžืžืงื•ื ืžืฆื™ืื•ืชื™ ื•ื‘ื•ื’ืจ. ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ืชืงื™ื™ืžื• ืฉื™ื—ื•ืช- ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉื™ืชืงื™ื™ืžื• ืœื ืขืœ ืžื” ืฉืฆืจื™ืš- ืืœื ืขืœ ืžื” ืฉื™ืฉ. ืžืžืงื•ื ืžื›ื‘ื“ ื•ืœื ืžืžืงื•ื ืžื˜ื™ืฃ ื•ืžื—ื ืš.

(6) ืืœ ืชืงื—ื• ืืช ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืื™ืฉื™- ื–ื›ืจื• ืฉื”ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื–ื” ื•ื›ืœ ื”ื”ืชื ืกื•ื™ื•ืช ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื‘ื™ื ืื™ืชื•, ื”ื•ื ืžื‘ื•ืจืš ื‘ื“ื™ื•ืง ื›ืฉื ืฉืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื”ืชื”ืคื›ื•ืช- ื–ื—ื™ืœื”- ืขืžื™ื“ื”- ื”ืœื™ื›ื” ื”ื™ื” ืžื‘ื•ืจืš ื‘ื™ื ืงื•ืช.

(7) ืื—ืจื•ื ื” ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ื” ื•ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื”: ื‘ื›ืœ ืคืขื ืฉืงืฉื”/ ืœื ื‘ืจื•ืจ/ ืžื“ืื™ื’/ ืžืขืœื™ื‘/ .. ื–ื›ืจื• ืœื ืฉื•ื! ื•ื–ื›ืจื• ื›ื™ ื”ื’ื™ืœ ื”ื–ื” ืขื•ื‘ืจ. ืชืžื™ื“.

ื”ืžื•ืŸ ื”ืฆืœื—ื”:)