Acta Trade Agreement

Acta was negotiated between 2007 and 2010 by the United States, the EU, Switzerland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, Singapore, Morocco, Japan and South Korea. Eight of the 11 negotiating countries signed the agreement in October 2011. The number of countries involved in these negotiations is limited, but the provisions of the agreement would have global implications for digital freedoms. As soon as six nations ratify the agreement, its implementation will be effective. Since October 2012, it has only been ratified by Japan. The European Union and its 28 Member States at the time shared the competence of this agreement. This means that entry into force on its territory requires ratification (or accession) by all states as well as the approval of the European Union. [48] The approval of the European Union requires the approval of the European Parliament and the Council. [49] On 26 January 2012, the European Union and 22 Member States signed the treaty in Tokyo. According to japan`s guard office, the other members (Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, the Netherlands and Slovakia) should sign it at the end of their respective national procedures. [3] On 3 February 2012, Poland announced that it was suspending the ratification process "due to the lack of consultations before the signing of the agreement at the end of January and the need to ensure that it is absolutely safe for Polish citizens." [48] [50] Bulgaria,[50][51] the Czech Republic,[50][52][53] Latvia,[54] And the non-signatories of Germany[56] Slovakia[53][57] and Slovenia[50][58] have put an end to the contracting party`s process. On 17 February 2012, Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk announced that Poland would not ratify ACTA. [59] [61] On 21 February 2012, a report revealed that "many European countries that signed the treaty cancelled ratification in response to public outcry, effectively hampering ratification and implementation of the treaty." [61] The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACAC) was a multilateral treaty establishing international standards for the application of intellectual property rights.

The agreement aims to create an international legal framework for combating counterfeiting, generic medicines and copyright infringement on the internet and would create a new governing body outside existing forums, such as the World Trade Organization, the World Intellectual Property Organization and the United Nations. ACTA was first announced in May 2008, following the release of a discussion paper on WikiLeaks. [25] However, according to a commentary by the European Union, there was no draft at the time, but the document was a first point of view, since it had been circulated by some parties to the negotiations. [26] The leaks of details published in February 2009 showed Division 6 chapters, which was also included in the final text. Most discussions focused on Chapter 2 "Application of Intellectual Property Rights" (IPR), which included the four sections in the final version (but somewhat different): civil enforcement, border measures, the application of intellectual property rights to criminals and the application of intellectual property rights in the digital environment. [26] In addition to the governments involved, an advisory committee of large multinationals, based in the United States, was consulted on the content of the draft contract,[27] including the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America[28] and the International Intellectual Property Alliance[29] (which includes Business Software Alliance, motion Picture Association of America and Recording Industry Association of America). [30] A 2009 Freedom of Information investigation revealed that the following companies also received copies of the project as part of a confidentiality agreement: Google, eBay, Intel, Dell, News Corporation, Sony Pictures, Time Warner and Verizon. [31] On October 1, 2011, eight ACTA negotiators signed the highest ever multi-lateral agreement on respect for intellectual property rights.